jueves, 10 de junio de 2010

Los primeros habitantes de Chile

Los restos humanos más antiguos encontrados en Chile datan del año 10.000 a.C. y fueron hallados en la región andina de Antofagasta; le siguen los de San Vicente de Tagua-Tagua, fechados hacia el 9.000 a.C. y los de Tierra del Fuego, que se ubican alrededor de los años 9.000 a 8.000 a.C.
Ecológicamente, nuestro territorio presenta una gran variedad de sistemas naturales, los que explican la diversidad de culturas que encontraron los conquistadores españoles al momento de su arribo. Así, es posible identificar cuatro áreas específicas: Norte (desde Arica al Río Aconcagua); Central (desde el Río Aconcagua al Río Biobío); Sur (desde Río Biobío a isla de Chiloé) y, finalmente, el área extremo sur (desde Chiloé al cabo de Hornos).
Desde el punto de vista de su organización, los pueblos originarios de Chile pueden ser clasificados en bandas y tribus.
Una banda es una agrupación pequeña, que no sobrepasa los 30 individuos; es decir, unas dos o tres familias nucleares (padre, madre e hijos). En ocaciones se sumaba a otras debido a ciertas necesidades, tales como la caza de animales de gran tamaño, o a ciertas casualidades, como la varazón de una ballena en una playa. Era nómade, pero tenía un territorio más o menos delimitado que recorría siguiendo las estaciones del año.
Desde el punto de vista social las bandas eran igualitarias; solo tenían diferencia de estatus o posición al interior del grupo, las que se reflejaban en determinadas normas de conducta. Carecían de toda especialización laboral, pero las labores estaban organizadas por sexo y edad. Practicaban el infanticidio, sobre todo femenino, debido a que debían limitar, en forma artificial, el crecimiento de la población, dada la inseguridad en lo relativo al acceso a fuentes alimenticias.
La adopción de la agricultura en aquéllos lugares en que las condiciones medioambientales lo permitían, provocó significativos cambios y algunas bandas se transformaron en tribus.
Las tribus eran agrupaciones mucho más numerosas, superando a veces las 10.000 personas. Este crecimiento se debe, fundamentalmente, a la mayor disponibilidad de alimentos, lo que hizo desaparecer la práctica del infanticidio.
Como eran agricultores, debieron asentarse junto a sus cultivos. Aparecieron las primeras aldeas y las labores agricolas generaron la necesidad de contar con un jefe que las dirigiera, desapareciendo, entonces, la igualdad inicial. Asimismo, surgió la especialización laboral.

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